By Siegfried Selberherr
The invention of semiconductor units is a reasonably fresh one, contemplating classical time scales in human lifestyles. The bipolar transistor used to be introduced in 1947, and the MOS transistor, in a essentially usable demeanour, used to be confirmed in 1960. From those beginnings the semiconductor equipment box has grown speedily. the 1st built-in circuits, which contained quite a few units, turned commercially to be had within the early Sixties. instantly thereafter an evolution has taken position in order that this present day, lower than 25 years later, the manufacture of built-in circuits with over 400.000 units in step with unmarried chip is feasible. Coincident with the expansion in semiconductor gadget improvement, the literature relating semiconductor equipment and expertise concerns has actually exploded. within the final decade approximately 50.000 papers were released on those topics. the arrival of so referred to as Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) has definitely published the necessity for a greater realizing of simple equipment habit. The miniaturization of the only transistor, that is the most important prerequisite for VLSI, approximately resulted in a breakdown of the classical versions of semiconductor devices.
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Extra resources for Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices
Wien-New York: Springer 1973. 77] Shibib, M. : Inclusion of Degeneracy in the Analysis of Heavily Doped Regions in Silicon Solar Cells and Other Semiconductor Devices. Solar Cells 3, 81-85 (1981). 78] Shur, M. , Eastman, L. : Ballistic Transport in Semiconductor at Low Temperature for LowPower High-Speed Logic. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-26, No. 11, 1677 -1683 (1979). 79] Slotboom, J. , DeGraaff, H. : Measurements of Bandgap Narrowing in Si Bipolar Transistors. Solid-State Electron. 19, 857 -862 (1976).
D(E). ax -q. A(E). 3-72) Graphs of the gradient coefficient W(E), the rate coefficient B(E) and the relaxation coefficient A (E) have been presented by Thornber for electrons in silicon at room temperature. v (E) and D (E) are the well known terms for the drift velocity and the diffusion coefficient. In the classical drift-diffusion current approximations all terms except those two are assumed to be negligibly small. 4 picoseconds in silicon (2 picoseconds in GaAs). 3-72) - a generalization of which to higher dimensional form is supposed to be straightforward - have not been tested for practical applicability, although it can be speculated that the range of validity of such treatments is greatly extended.
Fossum, J. : Energy Band Distortion in Highly Doped Silicon. IEEE Trans. 6, 626-634 (1983). 58] Lue, J. : Theory of Schottky Barrier Heights of Amorphous MIS Solar Cells. Solid-State Electron. 9, 869-874 (1982). 59] Lundstrom, M. , Schwartz, R. , Gray, J. : Transport Equations for the Analysis of Heavily Doped Semiconductor Devices. Solid-State Electron. 24,195-202 (1981). 60] Lundstrom, M. , Schuelke, R. :·Modeling Semiconductor Heterojunctions in Equilibrium. Solid-State Electron. 8, 683 -691 (1982).
Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices by Siegfried Selberherr