By Jerzy Plebanski, Andrzej Krasinski

ISBN-10: 052185623X

ISBN-13: 9780521856232

Basic relativity is a cornerstone of contemporary physics, and is of significant value in its purposes to cosmology. Plebanski and Krasinski are specialists within the box and supply an intensive advent to basic relativity, guiding the reader via whole derivations of an important effects. delivering insurance from a special point of view, geometrical, actual and astrophysical homes of inhomogeneous cosmological types are all systematically and obviously offered, permitting the reader to stick with and ensure all derivations. Many themes are incorporated that aren't present in different textbooks.

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Or or D/ x . The symbols Ti w k l We will denote the covariant derivative by will denote tensor densities whose explicit indices are irrelevant. to have the following properties: Specifically, we want 1. 8) 2. 9) 3. 10) 4. 12) for any k. It also implies that commutes with contraction. 5. When acting on a tensor density field of type w k l , it should produce a tensor density field of type w k l + 1 , thus T1 w k l = T 2 w k l + 1 Only the last property does not hold for partial derivatives. From these postulated properties we will now derive an operational formula for the covariant derivative.

20) and then the elements of the transformation matrix A b a = e b ea are scalar fields. 21) −1 c d = A A−1 −1 c s s es = d . 22) es are not tensor fields. 23) However, the antisymmetric part def = is a tensor, since x = 0. It is called the torsion tensor. 26) ew = wew−1 II The verification of (I) is easy. 28) Every continuous function that has the property f w1 + w2 = f w1 + f w2 for all real ew = we−1 e, which is w1 and w2 also has the property f w = f 1 w. 26). 29) Now, using Eqs. 30) At this point, we can derive the formula for the covariant derivative of an arbitrary tensor density field.

3). Let v be the vector tangent to the equator at A. Transport v parallely to C along the arc AC, and then again along the arcs AB and BC. All three arcs are parts of great circles, which are geodesics, so v makes always the same angle with the tangent vectors of the arcs. The first transport will yield a vector at C that is tangent to BC, while the second one will yield a vector at C perpendicular to BC. In consequence, if we transport (in differential C B A Fig. 3. Parallel transport of vectors on a sphere.

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