By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This e-book studies present wisdom at the courting among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It incorporates a checklist of innovations which could aid to farther develop wisdom during this area.
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Additional info for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
A) The cumulus stage is characterized by one or more towers fed by low-level convergence of moist air. Air motions are primarily upward with some lateral and cloud top entrainment. (b) The mature stage is characterized by updrafts, downdrafts and rainfall. Evaporative cooling at low-levels forms a cold pool and gust front, which advances, lifting warm-moist, unstable air. An anvil at upper levels begins to form. (c) The dissipating stage is characterized by downdrafts and diminishing convective rainfall.
An analogous freezing process occurs for unactivated droplets or haze particles at temperatures below À408C, a process for ice formation in cirrus clouds (DeMott 2002). Hence, in the atmosphere, homogeneous nucleation by freezing generally occurs only in high clouds or high latitudes. If a droplet contains a rather special type of particle, called a freezing nucleus, it may freeze by a process known as heterogeneous nucleation in which water molecules in the droplet collect onto the surface of the particle to form an icelike structure that may increase in size and cause the droplet to freeze.
3 Schematic illustration relating downdraft interaction to bridging and merger in case of light wind and weak shear. From Simpson et al. (1980) with permission from Springer Press 2 Principles of Cloud and Precipitation Formation 19 Fig. 4 Schematic model of the lifecycle of an ordinary thunderstorm. (a) The cumulus stage is characterized by one or more towers fed by low-level convergence of moist air. Air motions are primarily upward with some lateral and cloud top entrainment. (b) The mature stage is characterized by updrafts, downdrafts and rainfall.
Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton