By James F. Adams, Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman
The authors clarify how events and applicants place themselves at the Left-Right ideological measurement and different factor dimensions. Their unified theoretical method of voter habit and occasion ideas takes under consideration voter personal tastes, voter's partisan attachments, anticipated turnout, and the positioning of the political established order. The procedure, verified via wide cross-national research, contains reports of the plurality-based two-party contests within the U.S. and multiple-party festival in France, Britain, and Norway.
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The authors clarify how events and applicants place themselves at the Left-Right ideological measurement and different factor dimensions. Their unified theoretical method of voter habit and celebration suggestions takes into consideration voter personal tastes, voter's partisan attachments, anticipated turnout, and the site of the political establishment.
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Additional info for A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors
In Chapter 10, we consider the tendency of voters to project their own views onto the candidates of parties they prefer (an assimilation effect) and to describe the views of the candidates of parties they dislike as further away from their own views than may actually be the case (a contrast effect). We show theoretically that such effects have consequences for party location that are similar to those of party identification – namely, generating pressures for party divergence. Empirically, the degree of assimilation and contrast is assessed for each of the four countries discussed in earlier chapters.
We elaborate on this point in the following discussion. 4. The Unified Discounting Model Heretofore, we have assumed that in a Downsian or proximity model, voters take their notion of candidate/party location at face value – that is, they evaluate the parties as if they will implement the policies they are perceived to advocate. ” There are several reasons why we may expect that parties or candidates may be unable to implement the full extent of the policies that they advocate. The effect will be most pronounced in nations in which power is shared between an executive and a legislature, which are frequently controlled by different parties.
Because turnout was unusually low in the 1997 election, we apply the turnout model developed in Chapter 7, obtaining equilibrium party locations more dispersed than those obtained without the effects of abstention. The dynamics of a positive feedback loop as studied by Nagel (2001) are reported, which suggest long-term swings back and forth in the degree of divergence between Labour and Conservative positions. Nagel finds that as Liberal Democratic strength waxes, Labour and the Conservatives diverge (the occupied-center thesis), permitting the Liberal Democrats to gain even more strength (the vacated-center thesis) – a process that is likely to continue until reversed by exogenous forces.
A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors by James F. Adams, Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman