By W H G Armytage
A Social historical past of Engineering exhibits how social and fiscal stipulations in every one age have prompted advances in engineering. There are, in brief, financial, political, and philosophical implications in altering applied sciences. whereas the publication starts off with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the majority of the quantity concentrates at the 19th and 20th centuries. A Social historical past of Engineering displays Professor Armytage's distinct topic quarter pursuits, particularly nineteenth-century commercial society, radical and socialist pursuits, the background association, and the research of upper and technical schooling.
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1632 another Pope stripped 200 tons of bronze beams from the portico roof so that Bernini could make a new baldaquin for St. Peter's and eighty cannons for the papal armoury. It has always excited admira tion and emulation. D. A. The Pan theon embodied Roman civilization as the Parthenon had embodied the Greek. ROMAN BRITAIN Active as they were above ground, the Romans seemed singularly lethargic below it. To many Romans, the classification animal, veg etable or mineral would have little meaning, since many of them believed that metals grew like vegetables.
The stimulus to build came partly from the feudal system (castles) and partly from religion (churches, abbeys and cathedrals). Castles presented problems of mass and size: walls 21 feet thick (as at Langrcs) or stretching for 2t miles (as in the defences of Verona) are known. Churches, abbeys and cathedrals presented problems of height and strength and, if the term be not misunderstood, of gran deur. They were now increasingly built of stone, and their size and splendour were accelerated by the quarries opened up and by the increasing wealth of communities around them.
370 and they seem to have become standard from the fourth century onwards. They were to be found in fifth-century Athens as well as Byzantium, where overshot variants began to develop. Called hydraulae by Vitruvius, these mills were later called aquariae molae by Palladius in the fourth century and recommended as a replacement for animal and slave labour. When they became common the name denoting the motive power dropped and the word used was mola, molina or molendinum, from which comes our modern word mill.
A Social History of Engineering by W H G Armytage